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Post Romans and Beginnings of Osijek

In the 7th century, to the west of the ruins of Roman Mursa and on the elevated grounds near the river Drava, Slavic settlement was created. Slavic and ancient Croatian settlers called their settlement Osijek (Osek, Osik). This was the nucleus of the future city, whose name contained notion of something very suitable for crossing the river Drava, or suitable place for people and safe from flooding due to the swampy surroundings.

Name of the settlement is first mentioned in year 1196 in a document by Croatian-Hungarian king Emeric, in Hungarian form 'Eszek'. Some historians say that name Osijek comes from the Croatian word "oseka", which means "ebb tide". In the middle of the 12th century Osijek was already well-known marketplace and town where you can safely cross the river Drava. This is the reason numerous merchants, travelers and visitors from remote areas visited Osijek. Religious life flourished with the trade development. In that time, Osijek becomes what can be described only as a small medieval town, which only occupied the space where The Fortress (Tvrđa) is located today.

There's not much data about Osijek in 13th and 14th century. First news of Osijek came about in year 1332. In year 1351 there is first mention of the powerful and noble family Kórógy when they conflicted with the abbey Cikador.

In the second half of the 15th century Osijek looks no different from other cities in Medieval Central Europe. Most citizens were craftsmen (tailors, goldsmiths, blacksmiths, millers, furriers, cobblers and shoemakers) who fulfilled the needs of the local people and the people in the province. There is steady grow of of officials, urban nobility and wealthy citizens, also. In addition to being transport, shopping, crafts, administrative and feudal center, Osijek developed as very important cultural center of Slavonia. The first decade of the 16th century marked the last days of the medieval Osijek and the first beginnings of Ottoman rule in the region.